This event was the tipping point for the U. The world was once again at war. With the United States now involved in the war, men were joining the fight by the millions. Women stepped in to fill the empty civilian and military jobs once only seen as jobs for men. They replaced men in assembly lines, factories and defense plants, leading to iconic images like Rosie the Riveter that inspired strength, patriotism and liberation for women.
Women also took part in the war effort abroad, even taking on leading roles behind the camera. She later became the first female war correspondent and the first woman to be allowed to work in combat zones during the war. Army Air Corps, who would later become the famous Tuskegee Airmen. The Tuskegee Airmen were the first black military aviators and helped encourage the eventual integration of the U. With racial segregation still remaining in U. As the U. By the end of the ghetto was sealed off by brick walls, barbed wire and armed guards as other Nazi-occupied Jewish ghettos sprung up throughout Eastern Europe.
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In April , residents of the Warsaw ghetto staged a revolt to prevent deportation to extermination camps. The Jewish residents were able to stave off the Nazis for an impressive four weeks. However, in the end the Nazi forces destroyed many of the bunkers the residents were hiding in, killing nearly 7, people. The 50, ghetto captives who survived, like this group pictured here, were sent to labor and extermination camps. The photographs that emerged from the Nazi-lead concentration camps are among some of the most horrifying ever produced, let alone during World War II.
This photograph shows a pile of remaining bones at the Nazi concentration camp of Majdanek, the second largest death camp in Poland after Auschwitz. Enemy fire will cut some of them down. Today, it is regarded by historians as one of the greatest military achievements. On January 27, , the Soviet army entered Auschwitz and found approximately 7, Jewish detainees who had been left behind.
The Soviet Army also discovered mounds of corpses and hundreds of thousands of personal belongings. Prior to the liberation of the camps by the Allies, Nazi guards forced what was known as death marches. Throughout the month of January, over 60, detainees were forced to march some 30 miles in their frail, emaciated states leading to the death of many prisoners.
Those who survived were sent on to other concentration camps in Germany. This Pulitzer Prize winning photo has become synonymous with American victory. Taken during the Battle of Iwo Jima by Associated Press photographer Joe Rosenthal, it is one of the most reproduced, and copied, photographs in history. Marine photographer Louis Lowery captured the original shot but several hours later, more Marines headed to the crest with a larger flag.
It was on this second attempt, that the iconic image was snapped. These amounts were increased slightly in June A typical daily menu this one came from camp consisted of the following: Breakfast: A quarter of bread, margarine and tea. Dinner: Pork with potatoes Supper: Milk, Soup and a fifth of bread. The physical condition of prisoners was on the whole pretty good with regular meals and reasonable medical care being available to all. The mental condition of a lot of prisoners was however a different story.
Many were moved around from camp to camp, not just on the British mainland but some had originally been sent to America or Canada from large camps in Europe and then shipped to Belgium. It was a genuine concern to the Germans that they might fall victim to their own U-boats who, although clearly unable to win the Battle of the Atlantic in , were still sinking a lot of Allied shipping towards the end of the war and there was one case of a ship transporting Italian PoWs being sunk by a U-boat with a great loss of life.
It was then thought by the prisoners that they would be sent home to Germany but to their dismay were sent to Britain instead, all the time not knowing when they would be released. This had a demoralising effect prisoners who also had little knowledge of the welfare of their families and relatives and the state of their homeland.
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Many also suffered from nightmares and other symptoms of what is now known as post tramatic stress disorder. In Britain there were hundreds of camps and each one was assigned a number. The accuracy of these numbers is somewhat dubious as there were no accurate records kept and as well as this some camp's numbers were asigned to other camps when they were closed down. Below is a list of all the known camps in Britian and Northern Ireland.
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The list is quite extensive and readers who livein The UK may be surpried to the proximity of a camp to them. I know certainly was! There are over in all and the list will updated in time. Grizedale Hall, Hawkshead, Ambleside, Lancashire 2. Toft Hall, Knutsford Cheshire 4.
Unknown Camp Northern Ireland 6. Yorks 7. Winter Quarters, Ascot, Windsor Berks 8. Bun Camp, Doonfoot, Ayr, Scotland Featherstone Park, Haltwhistle, Northumbria Happendon Camp, Douglas, Lanarkshire, Scotland Bickham Camp, Yelverton, Tavistock, Devon Comrie, Perth, Scotland Pennylands Camp, Cummnock, Ayr Scotland.
Knutsford MH Cheshire Barton Field Camp, Ely, Cambridgeshire Royston Heath Camp, Royston, Hertfordshire. Boughton Park, Boughton, Nuneaton, Northhamptonshire. Sudeley Castle, Winchcombe, Cheltenham, Gloucester Pool Park, Ruthin, Denbighs. Castle Maxstoke, Coleshill, Warwickshire Somerhill Camp, Tonbridge, Kent. Ganger Camp, Romsey, Hampshire. Exhibition Field Cp. Holsworthy, Devon Harcourt Hill, North Ilnksey, Berkshire Goathurst Camp, Bridgewater, Somerset.
Trumpington, Cambridgeshire Kingsfold Camp, Billinghurst, West Sussex Motcombe Park, Shaftsbury, Dorset. Greenfield Farm, Presteigne, Radnor Allington, Grantham, Kesteven, Lincolnshire Nether Headon Camp, Retford, Nottinghamshire Sandbeds Camp, Brayton, Selby, Yorkshire Shalstone, Buckinghamshire Dotesdale, Diss, East Suffolk. Merrow Downs Camp, Guildford, Surrey Wood Walton Lane, Sawtry Wynolls Hill, Broadwell, Coleford, Gloucestershire Balhery Est. Camp, Alyth, Perth, Scotland Castle Rakine, Denny, Stirling, Scotland Sandyhillock Camp, Craigellachie, Banff.
Halmuir Farm, Lockerbie, Dumfries, Scotland.
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Ducks Cross Camp, Colmworth, Bedfordshire Storwood Camp, Melbourne, Yorkshire Racecourse Camp, Tarporley, Cheshire Northern Hill Camp, Laurencekirk, Kincardine Aunsmuir Camp, Ladybank, Fife, Scotland. High Garret, Braintree, Essex, Moorby, Revesby, Boston, Lindesy, Lincolnshire. Horbling, Sleaford, Kesteven, Lincolnshire Pingley Farm, Brigg, Lindsey, Lincolnshire Sheet Camp, Ludlow, Salop. Edmunds, West Suffolk Byfield Camp, Rugby, Warwickshire Mortimer, reading, Berkshire Easton Grey Camp, Malmesbury, wiltshire Friday Bridge, Wisbach, Cambridgeshire Bampton Road, Tiverton, Devon Durham Gaulby Road, Billesdon, Leicester Batford Camp, Harpenden, Staffordshire Wolseley Road, Rugley, Staffodshire Birdinbury, Bourton, Rugby, Warwickshire Little Addington, Kettering, Northamptonsire Martins, Owestry, Salop Glandulas Camp, Newton, Montgomery Llanddarog, Camarthen Moota Camp, Cockermouth, Northumbria Beela River, Milnthorpe, Westmorland Stamford, Kesteven, Lincolnshire Thirkleby, Thirsk, Yorks Brahan Castle, Dingwall, Ross and County Stuartfield, Mintlaw, Aberdeen Deer Park Camp, Moneymusk, Aberdeen Eden Vale Camp, Westbury Wiltshire White Cross Camp, St.
Columb Major Cornwall Waiderslade camp, Chatham, Kent Mardy, Abergavenny, Wales Pabo Hall Camp, llandudno Junction, Caernarvon Sunlaws Camp, Kelso, Roxburgh Dalmahoy Camp, Kirkwenton, Midlothian, Scotland. Wapley Camp, Yate, Bristol Newland House, Tooting Bec.
Mellands Camp, Gorton, Manchester, Lancashire Meesden, Buntingford, Hertfordshire Ashford Lodge Camp, Halstead, Essex West Fen Militia, Ely, Cambridge. Uplands Camp, Diss, Norfolk Loxley Hall, Utoxeter, Staffordshire Hazeldene Camp, Elburton, Plymouth, Devon Wolviston Hall, Wolviston, Billingham, Durham Racecourse Camp, Warwick, Warwickshire Beeson House, St. Neots Gloucester, Gloucestershire Carlton Hall, Carlton, Worksop, Nottinghamshire Ruskin Avenue, Kew, Richmond Surrey Normanhurst Camp, Battle, East Sussex Newton Camp, Preston, Lancashire Boar's Head, Walgherton, Nantwich, Cheshire Fulney Park Camp, Spalding, Lincolnshire Minister ofWorks Camp,swanscombe, Dartford, Kent.
Hornby Hall Camp, Penrith, Scotland Butterwick, Yorkshire Lydiard Park, Purton, Swindon, Wiltshire Naeburn MH Yorkshire. At mealtimes they would violently push the German prisoners out of the way and eat with their bare hands straight from the serving pots, shovelling as much food into their mouths as possible.
Using their fists, elbows and knees dragged the Russians away from the food back to the other end of the hall. This enraged the Russians who hated the Germans far more that the British guards and they planned their revenge.
Two nights later the German prisoners had planned a concert but the Russians seeing this as a chance for revenge decided to smash the stage up shortly before it was due to begin so no concert could take place. Word got back to Hanel's paratroopers about the Russian's plans and they decided to ambush the Russians and armed themselves with iron bars, wooden staves and planks of wood with nails hammered in to the ends.
The Russians were taken by surprise and the stage remained undamaged-which is more than can said for a large number of Russians who required medical treatment for their injuries! Needless to say there was no reoccurance of such incidents again. Hanel and his paratroopers imposed a strict Nazi-style type of order and the anti-Nazi contingent among the German prisoners were quick to fall into line.
Kangaroo courts were set up for offenders who could expect severe beating when found guilty. They encouraged other prisoners to be awkward with the British guards and when ordered to salute a British officer, did so with a Nazi salute. They stated that under the Geneva Convention, flying crews were not allowed to work and as they were part of the Luftwaffe they were not going to work.
Prisoners of War of the Japanese 1939-1945
The British replied with a "No work, No food" policy but although this forced the paras to work they practised a go-slow so very little productivity was gained from them. Another method of causing annoyance to the British guards took place at night when the prisoners would throw paper aeroplanes from the top floor of the camp into the streets below. The guards much to their anger had to pick up every single one in case they contained secret messages. Also when the prisoners went on work duty early in the morning they would sing Nazi marching songs at the tops of their voices and occasionally spat at the locals they passed.
More than once the guards were forced to separate enraged locals and German prisoners who had come to blows with each other.